Why is new beginnings so hard?
Now, I am absolutely fascinated by trees, and when people talk about new beginnings it’s
often depicted as something growing, a bud blooming or a seed sprouting. But when I think
of new beginnings, I see old leaves drifting in the wind, warn-out branches being pruned and
a replenishing of the earth.
This is us. A tree of life. A tree filled with a vibrant life force rooted in understanding, love,
wisdom and kindness, with fruits to bare and to share. At the core, this tree has an
everlasting spirit which flows through our roots, through the branches and flows to every
single person we meet. We give of ourselves every single day.
But sometimes some of our roots get contaminated. Contaminated by other people’s
opinions, conditioning that doesn’t serve us, contaminated by fear, self-doubt and
anger. These roots then manifest in dreams not being followed, unfulfilled lives, stagnant
careers, unhappiness, a general feeling of being
stuck and depressed.
This is why change is “hard”.
These roots needs to be restored or removed
completely, so that we may experience the
unconditional love we have for
ourselves and others and to have inner peace
and joy in every situation, be happy and
fulfilled. This is what’s destined for each and every one of us. A life of love, abundance and
Be READY for change, KNOW that change is possible, and that nothing is ever set in
stone. Rather than working around these contaminated roots, remove them. Rather than
learning strategies to live with them, get rid of them. Change is easy, it is the mind that
convinces us that new beginnings are not possible or that it is hard to change.
Whichever path you choose towards change, it’s only a decision away. A choice that you
want to remove the fear and be who you truly are. A choice to believe in yourself and that
you deserve all that this world has to offer. A choice to have love, abundance and joy and
change your life!
LE Magazine May 2008
D-Ribose: Energize Your Heart, Save Your Life
Rejuvenate Cardiac Cellular Energy Production
By Julius G. Goepp, MD
After a heart attack, there is a limited window of time to restore cellular energy production. Failure to
rejuvenate blood-deprived cardiac cells results in catastrophic heart muscle damage. New studies reveal how a low-cost nutrient can protect against cell damage that occurs during a heart attack and help rejuvenate heart muscles that have suffered injuries from previous ischemic (no blood
SUPPORTING “CARDIAC REJUVENATION”
Cardiologists are slowly recognizing specific nutrients play a vital role in preventing and treating heart
disease—particularly ischemic heart disease (caused by coronary artery occlusion) that underlies
most heart attacks. When deprived of blood flow, the injured heart muscle becomes flabby and unable
to pump blood efficiently.
The sharp drop in ATP (adenosine triphosphate) levels experienced by heart muscle cells during the
obstruction of blood flow, and the long delay in restoring those levels to normal even after blood flow
returns is critically important after a heart attack. This so-called ischemia-reperfusion injury is now
known to be the major culprit that produces long-term heart damage in survivors of heart attacks,
rendering tissue inordinately vulnerable to free-radical damage produced by the oxygen-rich (yet lifesaving)
re-flow of blood into the injured area. In fact, one researcher this year referred to the heart
mitochondria (the site of all that ATP production) as “the gates of life and death!” Clearly, helping
heart muscle cells to recover rapidly from a cardiac event is a major priority in preventing long-term
A natural ingredient for building new ATP, D-ribose is an important component of a “cardiac
rejuvenation” regimen. Animal studies show that it dramatically increases ATP levels in the critical
reperfusion period after a heart attack (the time when blood flow is restored and cells use energy at extremely high levels to
repair the damage). This provides much-needed energy levels to block further injury and start the healing process.
A landmark interventional study demonstrated these effects dramatically. The cardiac arrest induced during certain kinds of
heart surgery (such as bypass surgery) causes heart muscle function to deteriorate quickly, even in relatively healthy areas of
the heart, an effect that is associated with low ATP levels, which can severely delay recovery following surgery. As a result, the
scientists administered D-ribose to the heart during surgery, reasoning that they could “stoke up” heart muscle in advance with
the necessary ingredients for ATP. This procedure produced dramatic results in the experimental study consisting of a full hour
of cardiac arrest. The ribose-supplemented experimental group showed significant improvement in heart muscle function
compared with controls—and the amount of improvement correlated directly with the quantity of ATP in the heart muscle!
Since then, convincing evidence has continued to accumulate that D-ribose directly contributes to the rejuvenation of injured
In essence, these studies established the powerful protective effect of D-ribose and other ATP components under the most
stressful situation heart muscle can encounter—complete cessation of blood flow followed by sudden return of oxygen-carrying
REJUVENATING HUMAN HEARTS
Some exciting studies have emerged showing how D-ribose affects active human heart tissue and its function. Investigators
have shown how increased ATP levels translate into improved heart muscle function, better blood flow, and quicker recovery with
protection from the ravages of reperfusion-induced oxidation.
Ischemic (no blood flow) events such as a heart attack cause areas of the heart muscle to “hibernate” exactly as if they were
awaiting a higher-energy environment to return to their normal rates of activity. Cardiologists at the Oregon Health Sciences
University studied this phenomenon in a group of patients with coronary artery disease, subjecting
them to a “thallium stress test.” In this test, patients are injected with a radioactive tracer
immediately following moderate exercise, and the distribution of the tracer is followed using special
cameras. The patients received either D-ribose infusion or a placebo and the tests were repeated at
four and 24 hours, respectively. The groups were then switched to receive the opposite preparation.
The results were stunning—the images taken just four hours after D-ribose infusion revealed 21
areas of defective tissue that had not been seen in the placebo group, indicating that D-ribose was
“waking up” viable areas of heart muscle and helping improve identification of viable ischemic heart
muscle. A larger study published the same year showed similar results. These studies show
that D-ribose not only enhances cardiologists’ ability to accurately gauge the degree of heart
damage, but also suggest strongly that this supplement might hasten the recovery of healthy heart
function following a heart attack.
Survivors of heart attacks face the prospects of permanently damaged heart muscle, which saps the heart’s pumping abilities
and produces a host of symptoms from mild exercise intolerance to severe congestive heart failure. And since rehabilitation for
practically any heart condition requires regular moderate exercise, it is vital to assure that heart muscle cells optimize ATP
A problem aging humans face is that their heart muscle enlarges and becomes “stiff.” The result of this enlargement is a
reduction in ability to contract to pump blood out and to relax to allow blood in. People with ventricular hypertrophy often have
limited exercise tolerance and their hearts are often especially vulnerable to ischemia and subsequent further damage.
In a study with far-reaching implications for humans, researchers examined the effects of D-ribose
in animals to determine whether the supplement, given in advance, could protect their hearts
against experimentally induced ischemia.18 They also studied the effects of D-ribose in animals
with hypertension and enlarged heart muscles, the same hypertrophy that so commonly develops
in humans with sustained high blood pressure.
The first study results were stunning. The heart muscles of healthy animals given D-ribose before
ischemia held out 25% longer before the onset of irreversible injury and had significantly elevated
stores of energy-rich glycogen. In human terms, that could translate into valuable extra time for
modern emergency medical services to do their part, and could result in dramatically improved
survival after stabilization. These researchers also showed that in the hypertensive rats with
ventricular hypertrophy, D-ribose treatment significantly improved ventricular function by as much as
25%, increasing the hearts’ ability to “squeeze” at the appropriate times and pumping blood more effectively. The translation for
humans? Similar results would allow those with ailing hearts to deliver more blood to vital energy-hungry body organs and
structures—including the skeletal muscles that so readily fatigue and limit exercise tolerance.
WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW: D-RIBOSE
- Fatigue and exhaustion often occur as a result of depletion of the vital molecule called ATP in human muscle.
- Injured or heavily used muscle is particularly vulnerable to low ATP supply and is slow to recover those levels.
- A simple sugar molecule, D-ribose, is one of the key components of ATP. The more D-ribose that is available, the fasterATP levels return to normal.
- D-ribose supplementation has been shown to boost heart muscle function following heart attacks, and to improve blood pumping in people with congestive heart failure.
- Better heart muscle function after D-ribose supplementation can lead to better delivery of energy-rich blood to skeletal muscles, revving them up for increased activity.
- Increased ATP levels in skeletal muscle following D-ribose supplementation can help to reduce the muscle pain and fatigue that prevent people from keeping up their vital exercise regimens. n Cardiologists and exercise physiologists are increasingly turning to D-ribose as a means of “rejuvenating” their patients’ cardiac and skeletal muscles and improving their quality of life.
PROTECTING PATIENTS WITH HEART DISEASE
The results of these studies also have strong implications for the benefits of D-ribose in protecting people with congestive heart
failure, who just don’t have the cardiac power to pump blood vigorously from their hearts and around the body. The result is often
lack of energy, poor exercise tolerance and, in more severe cases, liver and lung complications, which can ultimately be fatal.
Restoring the heart muscle’s “tone” in patients with congestive heart failure is the goal of a host of drug treatments including
diuretics, digoxin, and others. In 2003, German researchers, however, took a more natural approach—they provided daily oral Dribose
supplements or placebo for three weeks to 15 people with congestive heart failure.19 The groups then reversed their
During the period of D-ribose supplementation, the patients showed dramatic improvements in their hearts’ ability to fill and
empty efficiently—changes critical to reducing fluid accumulation throughout the body, and to boosting energy levels as tissues
gain oxygen and nutrients from the restored blood flow. Perhaps most importantly from the patients’ own standpoint, they
reported substantial improvements in quality of life while on the active supplement. This general sense of improved energy and
well-being is vital to reinvigorating people and getting them started on making the lifestyle changes (such as increased exercise)
that we know are so important to maintaining cardiovascular health.
This study followed an earlier publication of a seminal paper by German cardiologists who studied the effect of D-ribose in 20
men with severe coronary artery disease that was sharply limiting their exercise tolerance (the ability to engage in mild physical
activity without either painful symptoms or ominous changes in electrocardiogram [EKG] tracings).
The researchers tested the men with two treadmill exercise tolerance tests to determine their baseline level of physical function.
Subjects were then randomly assigned to receive either D-ribose 60 grams/ day by mouth or a placebo for three days. Next, the
exercise tolerance tests were repeated, with the subjects walking until EKG changes mandated a halt. Men who had taken the
supplement were able to increase their treadmill walking time to 4.6 minutes, compared with just 3.7 minutes in the control
group—a 24% improvement. The ribose-supplemented men also showed a significant improvement in the time it took to develop
moderate angina (chest pain) compared with their baseline times—a change that the control group did not experience. This
study provided another way to promote heart function in people with significant cardiac disease. Of course had these same
patients been given ubiquinol CoQ10, acetyl-l-carnitine, taurine, and other cardiac-energizing nutrients, even greater
improvements may have been observed, or a lower dose of D-ribose needed.
ENERGIZING SKELETAL MUSCLE
“Cardiac rejuvenation” is clearly one of the important ways in which D-ribose can produce benefits for people with heart problems.
But what about the all-important skeletal muscles that are called on to actually use the energy supplied by that increased blood
flow and improved sense of well-being? There’s good news on that front as well, as a series of remarkable studies has shown.
A regular exercise program is critical to prevention of cardiovascular disease, as well as to the all-important rehabilitation
following a heart attack, stroke, or other potentially catastrophic event. Yet fewer than 50% of patients at risk actually
participate in regular, structured exercise programs aimed at improving or maintaining cardiovascular health. Many people
simply have trouble mustering the energy they need to start and maintain even a modest program of physical activity. One study
found that exercise-induced physical fatigue was the most important reason people stopped their workouts. That’s
understandable —vigorous exercise can drop muscle ATP levels by up to 20%, with up to a 72-hour recovery period being
required when muscles have been worked hard.
The “wiped-out” feeling many of us experience after exercise is also caused by the leakage of ATP breakdown products from
muscles into the bloodstream. And though personal trainers love to chant “no pain, no gain,” the truth is that too much pain can
lead to no gain at all! Once again, D-ribose is vital to keeping our muscles’ ATP-based energy stores at peak capacity. And
that can mean less “afterburn” and more enthusiasm for the next workout.
D-RIBOSE—FUEL FOR HEART AND MUSCLE FUNCTION
D-ribose is a simple sugar molecule with a wealth of functions in human and animal biology. Perhaps its most fundamental role
is as a component of ATP, the universal energy carrier in the body’s cells. ATP molecules store energy as they are built up
and release it as they are broken down—the more energy a cell requires, the more ATP it consumes. In fact, humans “burn” an
amount of ATP equivalent to their own body weight every day!
Every single process undergone by living cells requires energy—even at rest, we are continually breaking down ATP
molecules. And that means that we have a constant need for the components of ATP molecules, including D-ribose. Cells can
make new supplies of D-ribose, but the process is considerably slower than the breakdown of ATP,—this can leave a
substantial “deficit” in the amount of energy a cell can utilize. In fact, it has been shown that even an overnight rest period
is not long enough for a person to recover their normal ATP levels after a bout of strenuous exercise. It’s no wonder that
many of us feel “drained” after a hard workout—we are in fact drained of the very substances we need to make use of all of our
When cells don’t have enough D-ribose to restore ATP levels quickly back to normal, they turn to alternate energy-generating
processes. These are less efficient and produce much higher levels of damaging waste products that cause muscle burning
and cramping and that can also inflict long-term damage through the oxidant stress they induce in muscle and heart tissues,
leading to further dysfunction, injury, and pain.
Fortunately, research is demonstrating that ATP levels can be speedily brought back to normal if sufficient D-ribose is
available. This has been demonstrated in the case of ATP depletion following strenuous exercise,28,29,32 which has implications
for those who want to maintain health through lifestyle modifications. Perhaps more dramatically, D-ribose also restores ATP
to normal or near-normal levels after the heart muscle injury seen in a heart attack.
D-ribose is not a vitamin—cells can and do manufacture it themselves, given enough time and raw materials. But when
stressed by injury or high energy demands, they can’t keep up—leading one nutritional biologists to include D-ribose in a list of
“conditionally essential” nutrients—those that have to come from outside the body under conditions, such as heart disease,
which impose exceptional stresses on human tissue
There’s excellent science to back up the idea that D-ribose is good for working muscles. Exercise physiologists showed that
supplementing the muscles with D-ribose increased the total amount of ATP produced by up to four-fold, providing a substantial
“bank” of energy that could be called on for use when needed. And when physiologists in Missouri provided D-ribose to working
muscles, they demonstrated as much as a six-fold rise in the rate at which ATP components were recycled for use (recycling
ATP is much faster and more efficient than building it from scratch).
Danish sports and exercise physiologists showed that human muscle lost ATP after extreme exercise just like in experimental
models and they also noted that the exhausted muscles took longer to replenish their ATP levels than rested muscles. That
led them to speculate that supplementing human sprinters with D-ribose might speed the recovery of their muscles’ ATP levels.
In 2004, they published a landmark paper showing that, in fact, three-times daily supplements of D-ribose for three days following
extreme sprint training caused ATP levels to return to normal within 72 hours, while in placebo recipients ATP levels remained
depressed. It is important to note here that in this study as well as in many others, the D-ribose supplements did not increase
muscle strength or power. So don’t think of D-ribose as a “strength-training” supplement. The restoration of normal ATP
levels in “worked-out” muscles is probably what reduces the “wiped-out,” “spongy,” or “burning” feelings that people often
experience following a workout.
WORD OF CAUTION
Numerous human studies have shown that intravenous infusion or high-dose oral supplementation with D-ribose produces
hypoglycemic (blood sugar-lowering) effects. This effect seems to be dose-related, with larger doses producing greater
declines in blood glucose. Taking D-ribose with meals may help offset its hypoglycemic effect.
For millennia, people have believed that as we age, we naturally lose energy and vitality, but increasingly we’re learning that
those losses are not inevitable. Humans, like all living things, must maintain high levels of ATP to support physical activity, and
damaged or stressed muscle is slower at restoring those critical levels back to normal. And when ATP levels drop and cannot be
restored quickly, we do indeed feel “drained” of energy.
But remarkable scientific progress has been made in the past few decades. Scientists are discovering that simply by providing
injured, ailing, or fatigued muscle tissue with the ingredients for ATP, that tissue can be “rejuvenated,” restoring energy levels and
boosting function. D-ribose, a natural sugar molecule with no known side effects, is one of those key ingredients. D-ribose
supplementation powers damaged heart muscle back to near-normal levels of function, allowing victims of cardiovascular disease
to begin the vital rehabilitation process. D-ribose can also help restore ATP levels in skeletal muscle, relieving pain and
weakness post-exercise, and helping people to actually maintain the moderate level of increased exercise that is so critical to
preventing heart disease and to recovering from it if it does occur. D-ribose can improve both cardiac energy and quality of life—a
Thank-you to all who attended my workshop in the Cape, it was a magical experience and an honor to have shared the day with you. Thank-you for your feedback......
"It was great to be reassured & shown that everyone's experience is different & not wrong, but personal. Learn to trust in oneself. Thank-you, Tarryn."
"Very illuminating. Space was clean and open. Lovely. Would have enjoyed more time and interaction. Was most enjoyable....like a party you did not want to leave. Vivienne"
"Most enjoyable and enlightening, thank-you Sandy"
"I cant thank-you enough for putting this course together and coming all the way to Cape Town. I really learnt a lot, seeing auras for the first time was amazing, and everything you said is really helping me deal with my current situation. Your passion and love for what you do gave the course that extra loving energy. I realise that that was only a fraction of your knowledge and healing energy and I would love to learn more. Richard"
"Thank-you again for such an amazing workshop! I really enjoyed it so much! I am blown away by what you do, it is so exciting and also reassuring to know that there are Angels like you in the world to help and heal normal folk! I was inspired and feel like you have answered questions or experiences that I have been having since a child and had just put it down to my eyes being weird or me just wishing in something that wasn't really there. So thank-you!! My Angel/s will never be ignored again, it is now greeted, thanked and acknowledged everyday! Rosemary"
Our bodies need Zinc for various functions and because the body is unable to produce Zinc on its own it is therefore important to include foods in our diet that contain this crucial mineral.
The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for zinc is about 11 milligrams per day for an adult man and 8 milligrams for an adult woman. Obviously, a lactating or a pregnant woman requires a little more than the stipulated quantity, about 11 milligrams per day. About 5 milligrams per day is the RDA of zinc for 4-8 year old children and 8 mg for 9-13 year old children. The RDA of zinc per day for infants is about 3 mg.
Foods Rich in Zinc
Whole grains - the best sources of zinc.
Zinc from meat is four times more bio-available than zinc in grain foods.
Pecan, cashew and pine nuts in the daily diet should contain adequate amounts of zinc.
About 4-5 mg zinc (about 25-30 % of RDA) is obtained from 100 gm of lean pork pieces.
About 3 mg of zinc can be obtained from 100 gm of nuts or dried fruits.
Fresh fruits, potatoes, pumpkin seeds are common resources containing zinc.
Milk, cheese and yogurt (250 ml of yogurt provides 15 percent of RDA) are also zinc rich foods.
100 gm chicken can give you about 2 mg of zinc with one medium-sized chicken leg catering to about 15-20 % of RDA of zinc.
The non vegetarian foods containing zinc include calf's liver, lamb, shrimp and fish while vegetarian items like spinach, crimini mushrooms, thyme, basil, yeast, asparagus, miso, maple syrup, peas, broccoli, mustard greens and sesame seeds are good sources of zinc.
100 gm of red meat contains 5.2 mg of zinc and so you can include beef in the diet, which can fulfil about 30 - 60 % of the daily zinc requirement.
Shellfish (100gm contain 20 mg of zinc) and egg yolk (100 gm contain about 1.5 mg zinc) are the common foods containing zinc.
Oysters are one of the zinc rich foods, with 148 mg per 3.5 ounce serving or 100 gm of oysters offering about 25 mg zinc. As an example, six medium-sized oysters in the diet can fulfil the daily requirement of zinc
Why is Zinc important
Zinc helps in the production of about 100 types of enzymes in the body.
It is required for various enzymatic and biochemical reactions during the process of metabolism.
Zinc strengthens the immune system.
Zinc maintains our senses of smell and taste.
Zinc is imperative for DNA synthesis.
Zinc supplements are prescribed to care for those having recent burn injuries.
Zinc helps address Crohn's disease and Wilson's disease as it bars copper absorption.
Persons with high level of alcohol consumption are suggested to take zinc supplements.
Treatment with zinc is beneficial for Alzheimer's disease as it is observed that the levels of zinc in Alzheimer's patients are much lower than normal and zinc deficiency can destroy nerve cells.
Zinc deficiency in children can cause dwarfism or abnormal growth along with mental and psychological problems.
Zinc deficiency can lead to anorexia, slow wound healing, skin disorders, night blindness, hypogonadism, skin problems, weight loss, diarrhoea, joint and hip pain, hair loss and emotional instability. So proper zinc intake is advised when symptoms of zinc deficiency are noticed.
Overdosing on Zinc
The body absorbs only 15%-40% of the zinc, no matter how much zinc is consumed. The dietary fibers and phytic acid in the brain prevent excessive absorption of this mineral, especially when it comes from some non-meat food source. But an increased intake of vitamins C, E and B6 along with minerals like magnesium helps enhance zinc absorption in the body. In the milling and cooking processes, zinc is often lost, resulting in low consumption of the mineral. But, too much of zinc is harmful to our body. Zinc supplements should be carefully taken, under the guidance of a physician. If the intake of zinc exceeds 50 milligrams, it can lead to serious disorders like overload on liver, altered iron function, reduction of HDL (good cholesterol) and reduced immune function, leading to various complications.
MAGNESIUM, MAGNESIUM OXIDE & MAGNESIUM PEROXIDE
BY STUART THOMSON, DIRECTOR, GAIA RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Magnesium is an essential mineral in vertebrates and is the fourth abundant cation in the body, within the cell second only to potassium. A large number of enzymes require Mg for activation and it is involved with several physiological and biochemical processes including synthesis of RNA, DNA or protein and stabilization of membranes. (Schweigel M, Martens H, Frontiers in Bioscience 5, August 2000) The importance of extracellular and intracellular magnesium has become gradually recognized during the last century. At the present moment, pathologies as common as diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia are associated with an altered metabolism of magnesium, and this divalent cation is even being considered as a potential tool in the prevention or co-adjuvant treatment of ventricular arrhythmias, coronary heart disease and cirrhosis of the liver, among others. (Yago M, et al, Frontiers in Bioscience 5, July 1, 2000) Magnesium is a microelement that is essential for biological functions and particularly for cellular metabolism. It has a central role in protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and nucleic acid synthesis, and it is important for muscular physiology and nerve excitability. Magnesium has an important role in the stability of biological membranes, it controls immune phenomena, and it activates over 300 enzymes and exhibits antimutagenic effects against genotoxicity. (Bronzetti G, et al, J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol, 19(4), 2000)
Habitually low intakes of magnesium and resulting abnormal magnesium metabolism are associated with etiologic factors in various metabolic diseases, in particular: cardiovascular; blood pressure; skeletal growth & osteoporosis; and diabetes mellitus (Dietary Reference Intakes, National Academy of Science, Institute of Medicine, 1997).Magnesium is essential for potassium transport. Evidence suggests that a deficit of magnesium is closely interrelated to potassium deficiency and refractory potassium repletion. (Rude R, Am J Cardiol (Apr 18) 63(14), 1989) Numerous experiments and clinical observations have credited magnesium with a positive influence on the incidence of migraine attacks (Taubert K, Fortschr Med, 112(24), 1994). Reduced erythrocyte magnesium (Mg) levels have been reported in the chronic pain syndromes: fibromyalgia syndrome (FS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) eosinophilia myalgia syndrome (EMS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (Romano T, J Nutritional & Environ Med, 7, 107-111, 1997).
Magnesium deficiency seems to be implicated in immune dysfunction, including acute and chronic infections in AIDS, under which conditions researchers have consistently found lower concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte magnesium and also significant univariate associations between CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count and hematocrit and plasma magnesium concentrations. The lowest erythrocyte magnesium concentrations occurred in AIDS subjects who consumed alcoholic beverages. Magnesium levels, along with two other (less) significant joint predictors of CD(+) cell count, choline and zinc concentrations, together explained 43% of the variability in CD4(+) cell counts, leading to the conclusion that compromised nutritional status begins early in AIDS infections and contributes to disease progression. (Bogden J, et al, Am J Clin Nutri, 72(3), 2000) The foregoing and following associations are not comprehensive, yet illustrate the scope of beneficial effects attributed to magnesium nutrition. High dose magnesium appears to be effective in migraine prophylaxis (Peikert A, et al, Cephalgia, 16(4), 1996).
Magnesium deficiency is linked to heart disease. Hypertension and atherosclerosis are well-known precursors of ischemic heart disease, stroke and sudden cardiac death. It is now clear that a low dietary intake of Mg can be a strong risk factor for hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, ischemic heart disease, atherogenesis and sudden cardiac death. Deficits in serum Mg appear often to be associated with arrhythmias, coronary vasospasm and high blood pressure. Experimental animal studies suggest interrelationships between atherogenesis, hypertension (both systemic and pulmonary) and ischemic heart disease. Evidence is accumulating for a role of Mg2+ in the modulation of serum lipids and lipid uptake in macrophages, smooth muscle cells and the arterial wall. Shortfalls in the dietary intake of Mg clearly exist in Western World populations, and men over the age of 65 years, who are at greatest risk for development and death from ischemic heart disease, have the greatest shortfalls. It is becoming clear that Mg exerts multiple cellular and molecular effects on cardiac and vascular smooth muscle cells, which explains its protective actions. (BM Altura, BT Altura, Magnes Trace Elem 10:182-192, 1991-92)
Dietary intake of magnesium in developed countries is often far below recommended amounts. Furthermore, recommendations have been set at levels less than those amounts of magnesium required to achieve equilibrium in studies with humans. Consequently, chronic dietary inadequacy of magnesium is commonplace. Effects of magnesium deficiency are exacerbated by high protein intakes. Information on the influence of a marginal magnesium-deficient diet is accumulating. It is clear from these studies that magnesium deficiency may be present in spite of the absence of overt signs of deficiency and may be instrumental in changes within tissues, which impair function and/or promote disease. (K Kubena and J Durlach, Magnes Res, 3(3), 1990) High levels of dietary fiber from fruits, vegetables, and grains however, ‘decrease’ magnesium absorption and/or retention, but not green leafy vegetables. Oral magnesium supplementation is totally atoxic, since it palliates magnesium deficiencies by simply normalizing the magnesium intake.(J Durlach, et al, Magnes Res, 7, 3/4, 1994)
The modem-day world's dietary magnesium status appears bleak, unless one has access to magnesium-rich drinking water (e.g., 30 to 90 mg/L) (Marier J, Magnesium content of the food supply in the modern-day world, Magnesium 5:1-8, 1986). Unless the problem is addressed, magnesium deficiency is likely to get worse because modern farming methods cause magnesium to leach from the soil. Unlike other nutrients, it is not current practice in agriculture to replace the soil magnesium that is harvested or leached. Water-borne magnesium is more completely and readily absorbed by the gut than is food-borne magnesium. (Durlach J, et al, Magnesium level in drinking water and cardiovascular risk factor: A hypothesis, Magnesium 4: 5-15, 1985) Changing a population's diet to include magnesium-rich foods appears to be less practical and less likely than improving the magnesium content of drinking water. The calcium/magnesium ratio in water should be about 2 to 1 to benefit the heart. Magnesium in water has better bio-availability than magnesium-fortified foods. Supplementation should be achieved by magnesium in water whether in its natural form or in an artificial form by addition of a soluble Mg salt to ordinary water. (Durlach J, Recommended Dietary Amounts Of Magnesium, Magnesium Research, 2:3, 1989)
Water-borne magnesium is absorbed 30% better and much faster than dietary Magnesium. There is a considerable diurnal variation in the amount of Mg absorption, leading to a 50-70% lower Mg status during the morning hours. When little or no breakfast is taken, the low Mg period is extended until the coffee break or later, and the Mg content of water will then have a crucial importance. Magnesium has all the required properties to protect the heart. It ensures the normal quiet heart rhythm. If this is unduly accelerated by toxic factors or other stress, Mg may reverse the effect. The abnormal human heart condition may occur well above the deficiency range. Magnesium prevents so-called "calcium overload", usually treated with pharmaceutical preparations ("calcium blockers") but Mg would probably do as well, or even better. (Löwik M, et al, Magnesium and public health: the impact of drinking water. In: Trace substances in environmental health: proceedings of University of Missouri's annual conference on the trace substances in environmental health,16: 189-95,1982)
Magnesium oxide is simple elemental magnesium. Normally Gaia Research would not recommend elemental minerals, preferring food sources (green leafy vegetables are rich in magnesium), but in the case of elemental magnesium, there is considerable evidence that it is uniquely well utilized as a water additive, especially since water-borne magnesium is ionized and therefore likely to be more readily available than the magnesium in food. Alan Gaby MD, in a Literature Review & Commentary in the Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients (2000) recently noted of therapeutic use of magnesium oxide for mild essential hypertension and quality of life, that: “It is noteworthy that the improvements reported in this study were achieved by supplementing with a relatively small amount of magnesium oxide. Many believed that it is poorly absorbed. Its use as a supplement should be reconsidered.” Oxygenated magnesium peroxide has additional assimilation and other advantages (significant alkalization and oxygenation) over other forms of magnesium, let alone simple effective elemental magnesium.
Magnesium peroxide (MgO2) is "oxygenated magnesia". It contains both magnesium (oxide) and oxygen and progressively liberates the oxygen upon contact with acids in water. It is 43.17% magnesium and 56.83% oxygen. Magnesium peroxide also imparts a beneficial alkaline reaction to water to which it is added, and in the process of neutralizing acids, liberates the bound oxygen (ensuring a more controlled action than with hydrogen peroxide, which latter tends to slightly acidify water). The oxygenating, alkalising and chemo-physiological effects of magnesium peroxide probably equal, if not exceed its basic magnesium nutritional benefits (The Editor). The spent magnesium peroxide is converted to magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2). The safety of this material is easily conveyed by the fact that a suspension of magnesium hydroxide in water is ordinary Milk of Magnesia, which explains its gentle, yet reliable laxative effect, the latter at doses approaching ½ - 1 tsp in a glass of water. Magnesium peroxide is used as an anti-septic, chiefly in dentifrices, including toothpowders. These magnesium compounds meet safety criteria for entering the environment, including the food chain. The compounds are simple minerals and so, microorganisms can metabolize them, using their internal organic acids to solubilize them. Pharmacopoeia indicate deodorant, antiseptic, anti-infective, antacid, and laxative effects for magnesium peroxide.
Magnesium Peroxide References: (R Todd (ed) in Martindale Extra Pharmacopoeia, The Pharmaceutical Press, 1967); (S Budavari (ed) in The Merck Index: An encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals, Merck & Co, 1989); (J Macintyre (ed) in Dictionary of inorganic compounds, vols 1-3, Chapman & Hall, 1992); (R Lewis (ed) in Hawley’s Condensed Chemical Dictionary, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co, 1993); (D Lide (ed) in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, 1996); (N Greenwood and A Earnshaw (eds) in Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edn, Butterworth, 1997); (F Cotton, et al (eds) in Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, 1999)
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